Winemaking is the production of wine, starting from the selection of the fruit, its fermentation into alcohol, and then bottling of the finished liquid. It is also called as Vinification. The study of wine and wine making is known as oenology. A winemaker is called a vintner. The growing of grapes is called viticulture. The earliest proof of wine is from ancient China in. 7000 BC, Georgia in 6000 BC, Persia in 5000 BC, and Italy 4000 BC. Today, the 5 international locations with the biggest wine-producing areas are in Italy, Spain, France, the United States, and China.
Wine is an alcoholic drink normally crafted from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar within the grapes and converts it into ethanol and carbon dioxide, liberating heat within the process. Different types of grapes and traces of yeasts are principal elements in different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions among the biochemical development of the grape, the reaction involved is fermentation.
Wine is crafted from variety of fruits, with grapes being the most common. The grape type used and the amount of grape skin contact while the juice is being extracted determines the colour and general style of the wine. Wine’s sweetness is not related to any colour.
Types of wines from Grapes
|Long contact with grape skins||Short contact with grape skins||No contact with grape skins|
|Red Grapes||Red Wine||Rosé Wine||White Wine|
|White Grapes||Orange Wine|
Red wine gets its colour and flavor, notably tannins from the grape skin, by soaking the grapes in the extracted juice. Red wine is produced from dark-coloured red grape varieties. The actual colour of the wine can range from violet, typically the colour of young wines, via red for mature wines, to brown for older red wines. The juice obtained from most red grapes is actually greenish-white; the anthocyanins present in the skin of grape gives red color. An exception is the family of uncommon teinturier varieties, which actually have red flesh and produce red juice.
To make white wine, grapes are quickly pressed with the juice drained away immediately from the grape skins. The grapes used are generally white grape varieties. The Red grapes may also be used if the winemaker is careful not letting the skin stain the wort during the separation of the pulp-juice. For eg, Pinot noir, a red grape variety, is commonly used in champagne.
A rosé wine gets its colour from red grape skins, however not sufficient enough to qualify it as a red wine. It is the oldest acknowledged type of wine, as it’s far the most straightforward to make with the skin touch method. Depending upon the varieties of grapes used and wine making techniques, the colour can vary from a light orange to a bright near-purple. Rosé wines have a huge variety of sweetness degrees from dry Provençal rosé to sweet White Zinfandels and blushes.
Also called amber wines, these are the wines made with white grapes however the skins are allowed to soak during pressing, much like red and rosé wine production. They are extensively tannic, and generally made dry.
These are effervescent wines, made in any styles like orange, red, rosé and white wines. They ought to go through secondary fermentation to create carbon dioxide, which create bubbles. The bottles used for containing sparkling wine must be thick enough to withstand the pressure of the gas behind the cork, which may be up to 6 standard atmospheres or 88 psi.
These are the sweet wines that have high level of sugar remaining after fermentation. There are numerous methods of increasing the quantity of sugar in a wine, yielding products with different strengths and names. Some of the examples are Icewine, Port, Sauternes, Tokaji Aszú, Trockenbeerenauslese, and Vin Santo.
MANUFACTURING OF RED WINE:
- Harvesting – Fresh and completely ripened wine grapes are favoured for wine making. Mechanical harvesting structures are also used in California, Australia, France, and elsewhere, based on shaking the berries from the clusters or breaking the stems in. Because of the impact upon grape composition, right timing of the harvest is of tremendous importance. Premature harvesting results in thin, low-alcohol wines; very late harvesting may also yield high-alcohol, low-acid wines.
- Crushing & Pressing- Crushing the entire clusters of fresh ripe grapes is traditionally the subsequent step within the wine making process. Today, mechanical crushers carry out the time-venerated culture of stomping or trodding the grapes into must. Mechanical pressing improves the quality and longevity of wine, while decreasing the want for preservatives.
- Fermentation – In many wineries and vineyards natural fermentation is a welcoming phenomenon. Although, for plenty of reasons, many winemakers opt to interfere at this level through inoculation of natural must. Which means killing the wild and occasionally unpredictable natural yeasts after which introduce a strain of yeast of personal preference in order to expect the end result. When fermentation starts it generally continues until all the sugar is converted into alcohol and a dry wine is produced. Fermentation can range from ten days to a month or more. The ensuing level of alcohol in a wine will range from one locale to the next, as per the sugar content of the must. An alcohol level of 10% in cool climates and 15% in hotter regions is taken into consideration as normal. Sweet wine is produced while the fermentation method stops earlier than all the sugar has been transformed into alcohol.
- Clarification – After fermentation, comes clarification. Winemaker’s rack or siphon their wines from one tank or barrel to the next to leave the precipitates and solids called pomace in the bottom of the fermenting tank. Filtering and fining can also be done at this step. Filtration may be performed with everything from a course filter that catches large particles to a sterile filter pad that strips wine of all life. Fining takes place when substances are delivered to a wine to make them clear. Frequently, winemakers add egg whites, clay, or different compounds to wine so that there is precipitation of dead yeast cells and different solids out of a wine. These materials adhere to the undesirable solids and force them to the bottom of the tank. The clarified wine is then racked into some other vessel, in which it is prepared for bottling or addition aging.
- Aging and Bottling – This is the very last stage of wine making technique. After clarification, the winemaker can bottle a wine immediately, that’s the case with Beaujolais Nouveau, or he/she can deliver additional aging to the wine as with the case of Grand Cru Bordeaux and the best Napa Valley Cabernet Sauvignon. Further aging may be performed within the bottle, stainless steel or ceramic tanks, massive wood ovals, or small barrels, usually referred to as barriques. The alternatives and strategies hired on this very last level of the manner are almost endless.
MANUFACTURING OF WHITE WINE
Generally, the manufacture of white wine is much like that of red wine except that red wines are fermented at the entire crushed mass, while white wines are pressed earlier than fermentation in order that best juice is fermented. There is other fundamental different variation within the process like;
- Higher pressure is needed to extract maximum juice.
- Sterilization of the extracted juice from spoil disease microorganism present within the juice and then inoculate with fresh yeast culture. Sterilization is carried out through burning sulphur to provide sulphur dioxide or by adding potassium metabisulphite (K2S2O5) at 0.01% of must.
- Must is clarified and inoculate with active culture of yeast at 2-10% volume of must and allowed to ferment at 80 F.
Wine is an alcoholic drink generally produced from fermented grapes. It has been manufactured for thousands of years. There are varieties of wines available such as – Red, White, Rosé, Dessert, Sparkling and Orange wine. Each of the varieties has same processes but slight differences. The five basic steps for wine making are- Harvesting, Crushing & Pressing, Fermentation, Clarification, Aging and Bottling. Fermentation can be described as the conversion of one molecule of glucose into two molecules each of ethanol (or ethyl alcohol) and carbon dioxide: C6H12O6 → 2C2H5OH + 2CO2.
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- Herstein, K. M. and Gregory, C. T. (1935). Chemistry and Technology of Wine and Liquors. White Mule Press, California.
- Jackson, S. R. (2008). Wine Science- Principles and Application. Academic press, Elsevier.